Different studies use various approaches for defining pistachio forest.
Types of pistachio forest in Kyrgyzstan according to Forest Typology in the Kyrgyz Republic (E. Grisa, B. Venglovsky, Z. Sarymsakov, G. Carraro. – Bishkek: 2008) there are following types:
- Pistachio forest with high grasses and cereals. This type of forest is distributed in the foothills, lower mountains and partly in the middle mountains area within the altitude range from 800 to 1400 m above sea level. The stand structure normally consists of one layer, rarely – of two layers. The admixture of other shrubs is not essential. It is only at higher altitudes that there increases the participation of such species as cotoneaster, honeysuckle, and hawthorn of the shrublike form. Rarely, there can be found maple, pear, hackberry, and elaeagnus. The grass cover is rich and abundant. There prevail such species as sedge, bluegrass, origanum, marjoram, inula, prangos, eremurus.
- Pistachio forest with absinth and cereals. This type of forest is distributed within the altitude range from 800 to 1200 m above sea level. Normally, the pistachio forest stand consists of one layer. The admixture of shrubs (spirea, cherry) is not essential. The grass cover is dominated by various species of absinth, while the sub-dominant role belongs to bluegrass and sedge, which form the turf cover. In some places, there grow, in scattered manner, such species as elecampane, foxtail, eremurus, oxalis and other xerophilous species.
Pistachio forest in Kyrgyzstan.
- Pistachio forest on eroded slopes. This type of forest is distributed mainly in the foothills and less often in the low mountain areas within the altitude range from 700 to 1200 m above sea level. Normally, the pistachio stands have one layer. The participation of other shrub species is inessential, normally represented by cherry, spiraea, less frequently – by single groups of almond (Amygdalis spinosissima). In the gullies, there can be observed the thin shrub layer composed of bean caper, tamarisk, as well as of the grass species typical of the dry steppe environment: cereals, wormwood, absinth etc. The grass cover is rather poor. In most cases, the soil is not swarded.
Typology of pistachio forest in Tajikistan according to V. Zapryagaeva, Wild fruit tree of Tajikistan, Moscow-Leningrad, 1964.
- Short grass and semisavanna pistachio forest (with altitude 600-1200 m)
- High grass and semisavanna pistachio forest (with altitude 1000-1400 m)
- Desertificated pistachio forest (with altitude 550-1300 m)
- Pistachio forest with patches of deciduous forest (with altitude 1100-1600 m)
- Pistachio forest with patches of juniper forest (with altitude 1500-1800 m)
Pistachio forest in Tajikistan.
The biggest pistachio forest in Uzbekistan can be found in Babatag, in Ferghana valley and Chatkal mountain range (K. Popov, Pistachio of Middle Asia, Ashkhabad, 1979).
There are 2 pistachio formation in Babatag – desert and steppe within 12 associations. In Feghana region there are semidesert, steppe and tree-shrub pistachio forest. In Chatkal mountain range there is only one pistachio forest – semidesert with various plant flora species (Ephedra ciliate, Bellevalia atroviolacea, Crambe kotschyana, Hordeum spontaneum, Lepyrodiclis holosteoides, Galium spurium, Euclidium syriacum).
Surroundings of Pistali-say, Chatkal mountain range, Tashkent province.